Financial Jargon

“Money without financial intelligence is money soon gone.” – Robert Kiyosaki

Adjustable-Rate Mortgage

A mortgage with an interest rate that changes periodically based on a reference interest rate, such as the prime rate or LIBOR.

Amortization

The process of paying off a loan over time through regular, scheduled payments of principal and interest.

Annual Percentage Rate

The yearly interest rate charged on borrowed money, including fees and other costs.

Annuity

A financial product that provides a series of regular payments over a specified period, often used for retirement income.

Asset Allocation

The process of dividing investments among different asset classes, such as stocks, bonds, and cash.

Asset Class

A category of investments with similar characteristics, such as stocks, bonds, or real estate.

Bear Market

A prolonged period of declining stock prices, typically by 20% or more from recent highs.

Bull Market

A prolonged period of rising stock prices, characterized by investor optimism and positive economic conditions.

Bond

A debt security issued by a corporation, municipality, or government, which pays interest to investors.

Budget

An itemized plan that outlines income and expenses over a specific period, typically a month or a year.

Capital Gains

The profit realized from the sale of an investment or asset, such as stocks or real estate.

Capital Loss

The loss realized from the sale of an investment or asset when the sale price is lower than the purchase price.

Certificate of Deposit

A type of time deposit offered by banks, with a fixed term and interest rate, usually offering higher interest rates than traditional savings accounts.

Checking Account

A bank account used for daily transactions, such as paying bills and making purchases.

Compound Interest

Interest earned on both the initial principal and any accumulated interest, resulting in exponential growth over time.

Credit Report

A detailed record of an individual's credit history, including loans, credit cards, and payment history.

Credit Score

A numerical rating that represents an individual's creditworthiness, based on their credit history.

Debt

Money owed to another party, typically as a result of borrowing.

Debt-to-Income Ratio

A calculation used by lenders to assess a borrower's ability to repay a loan, expressed as the ratio of monthly debt payments to monthly gross income.

Diversification

Spreading investments across various types of assets to reduce risk.

Dividend

A payment made by a corporation to its shareholders, typically from its profits.

Dollar-Cost Averaging

A strategy of investing a fixed amount of money at regular intervals, regardless of market conditions, to reduce the impact of market volatility.

Down Payment

The initial, upfront payment made when purchasing a home or other large-ticket item.

Emergency Fund

A savings account set aside for unexpected expenses or financial emergencies.

Estate Planning

The process of arranging one's financial affairs to ensure the efficient transfer of assets to beneficiaries and minimize taxes and other costs upon death.

Exchange-Traded Fund

A type of investment fund that is traded on a stock exchange, similar to a stock.

Financial Advisor

A professional who provides financial guidance and advice to clients, including investment management, retirement planning, and tax strategies.

Financial Planner

A professional who helps clients create a comprehensive plan for managing their financial affairs, including investments, retirement, taxes, and estate planning.

Fixed-Rate Mortgage

A mortgage with an interest rate that remains constant throughout the life of the loan.

Home Equity

The difference between the market value of a property and the outstanding mortgage balance.

Home Equity Line of Credit

A revolving line of credit secured by the equity in a home, allowing homeowners to borrow money as needed.

Individual Retirement Account

A personal retirement savings account with tax advantages, separate from an employer-sponsored plan.

Inflation

The rate at which the general level of prices for goods and services is rising, resulting in a decrease in purchasing power.

Interest

The cost of borrowing money, expressed as a percentage of the principal amount.

Liquidity

The ease with which an asset can be converted into cash without affecting its market price.

Money Market Account

A type of savings account that typically earns higher interest rates, often with higher minimum balance requirements and limited transactions.

Mortgage

A loan used to purchase a home, secured by the property itself.

Mutual Fund

An investment vehicle that pools money from many investors to buy a diversified portfolio of stocks, bonds, or other securities.

Net Worth

The total value of an individual's assets minus their liabilities.

Principal

The original amount of money borrowed, separate from any interest or fees.

Refinancing

The process of obtaining a new loan to replace an existing loan, often to secure a lower interest rate or change loan terms.

Risk Tolerance

An investment vehicle that pools money from many investors to buy a diversified portfolio of stocks, bonds, or other securities.

Roth IRA

A type of individual retirement account where contributions are made with after-tax dollars, and qualified withdrawals are tax-free.

Savings Account

A bank account that earns interest on the money deposited and is designed for saving money.

Stock

A share of ownership in a corporation, representing a claim on part of the company's assets and earnings.

Tax Credit

A dollar-for-dollar reduction of the income tax owed, as opposed to a deduction that reduces taxable income.

Tax Deduction

An expense that can be subtracted from taxable income, reducing the amount of taxes owed.

Tax-Deferred

An investment account that allows earnings to grow without being taxed until the funds are withdrawn, typically in retirement.

Traditional IRA

A type of individual retirement account where contributions may be tax-deductible, and earnings grow tax-deferred until withdrawn in retirement.

401(k)

A retirement savings plan sponsored by an employer that allows employees to contribute a portion of their salary before taxes.
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